Article Reviews


  1. Physical Educators and School Counselors Collaborating to Foster Sucessful Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.

Authors:  Daniel Webb, Terry Webb, and Regina Fults-McMurtery.

Abstract:  This article discusses different legislative acts that have created a movement to change how General Physical Education teachers and School Counselors collaborate to insure a positive inclusion educational experience.  Acts like IDEA, EAHCA, and IDEIA are mentioned and how they led to the now common terms of  LRE, FAPE, and IEP.  The changing role of the school counselor was mentioned due to a lack of qualified professionals who know how to work with students with disabilities.  School counselors were viewed as authorities in inclusion strategies.  Grouping, planning inclusive developmentally appropriate activities, and teaching functional skill development were all explained.  A helpful chart on barriers, potential strategies, and possible outcomes was also displayed.  This was a simple article on collaboration within the schools.

2.  Transition of Students with Disabilities into Community Recreation:  The Role of the Adapted Physical Educator

Authors:  Patricia L. Krebs and Martin E. Block

Abstract:  This article speaks on typical Special Education Programs and how they address the transition of the student from High school to Post High school relating to Vocational, Domestic, and Community issues.  Although many SPED professionals agree that Recreation should be a ongoing part of a person with disabilities life, they typically do not provide any transitional help in this area.  The Life Skills model, the newer educational model is discussed in detail.  The APE teacher’s role is described in detail and draws attention of a movement from following the linear loco motor skills progression to successfully teaching a student with a disability the skills he or she will need to continue on in their own public recreational activities beyond high school.  The APE teacher is truly defining the definition of collaboration.  In the article, the APE specialist communicates with not only the student and parents, but the high school teachers, counselors, administration, as well as the community recreation liaisons and fitness facility representatives.

3.  Efficient and Effective Formats for Collaborative Consultation

Authors: Noell Reinhiller

Abstract:  This article reviews the ACT and INCLUDE models of collaboration.  Helpful hints on how to set up and arrange a meeting to collaborate with general education teachers and other school personnel were offered.  Seven specific steps were given that should be addressed in each collaborative meeting while using the INCLUDE model.  Those steps were:  1.  Identify classroom demands 2. Note student learning strengths and needs 3. Check potential areas of student success 4. Look for potential problem areas 5. Use information gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations 6. Decide which adaptations to implement 7. Evaluate the student progress.  These ideas were pretty straight forward but laid out in a helpful and direct format.


1. Integrating Physical Education to Teach Appropriate Play Skills to Learners with Autism:  A Pilot Study

Authors:  Stuart J. Schleien, Linda A. Heyne, Susan Breihan Berken

Abstract:  This article described a 9-week pilot study about integrating children with autism into a general physical education setting with 50 other students without disabilities.  The purpose of the study was to see if the 6 students with autism between the ages of 4 and 12 would be positively influenced in appropriate play skills by their peers without disabilities.  Each child with autism was partnered up with a group according to age level.  Before both groups of students were introduced, the students without disabilities were shown a 30 minute short film on “Special Friends”.  TARC data was taking before and after the program on all the participants with Autism.   Eighteen 50 minute integrated class sessions were administered over the 9 week experiment.  The pilot study found that the children with Autism were more likely to display appropriate social behaviors when age appropriate activities were offered.  Although the students with autism didn’t display any major motor development skills improvement they did display significant changes in reduced inappropriate play behavior, reduced target inappropriate behaviors, and a minor development of motor proficiency in catching and striking skills.

2.  Infusing JUST Design in Campus Recreation

Authors:  Katheryne Staeger-Wilson and Douglas H. Sampson

Abstract:  When  I actually set down to read this article I was pumped because it was a story about my alma mater.  The article describes the process MSU (Missouri State University) went through to create a new on campus recreation center.  In order to go beyond Universal Design,  a design committee was formed by the director of The Disability Resource Center (DRC), faculty, staff, and numerous students with disabilities.  This design committee’s goal was to not only create an accessible building but also address programming issues and pick out appropriate fitness equipment.  The inclusion of these students with disabilities in the actual building process truly showed that the team valued their opinions and gave them a voice.  When asked about the experience they reported that their favorite part was visiting other recreational centers with the group, testing them out, and fully explaining what worked and what didn’t, as well as why.

3.   A Continuum of Paraeducator Support for Utilization in Adapted Physical Education

Authors:  Justin A. Haegele and Francis M. Kozub

Abstract:  This article talks about three different ways a para educator can be utilized in APE.  They addressed the importance of clarifying the role of the para within the class broadly.  One specific way to communicate this to the para were by letting them view the written lesson plan and expecting them to help all students in the class with the daily objectives.  Another form of expressing this was by describing and defining specific modifications for each lesson and expecting the para to work one on one with a certain child to meet those IEP adaptation recommendations.  Finally the use of technology was brought to the table.  Video clips were recommended to demonstrate the specific skill or objective that was being taught during that unit and paras were expected to help model the specific skills with all students.  This article address the possibility of para educators with little or prior knowledge about the content area.  Acknowledging that one on one assistance from a para would aid in the inclusion process helps value the para but still understand what short comings they may or may not have.  The video modeling was viewed as positive way to improve the para’s content knowledge allowing for  a more positive inclusive setting.


1.   Elementary Physical Education Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Needs: A Qualitative Investigation

Authors:  Sue Combs, Steven Elliott, and Kerry Whipple

Abstract:  This article discusses a qualitative study that compared two groups of physical educators that had experience with inclusion of children with special needs into their general physical education classes.  The study broke the participating teachers into two groups–teachers with positive attitudes towards inclusion and teachers with negative attitudes towards inclusion.  The teachers with positive views on inclusion had previous experience and education in adapting physical education through creating supports to overcome barriers created by student’s disabilities.   These same teachers with positive attitudes seemed to base their assessment of the student on motor skill improvements while the teachers with negative attitudes assessed their students success on the students ability to stay busy, happy, and do as their teacher told them.  The teachers with a positive attitude had more experience and confidence in consulting APE specialists for advice and guidance.

2.  The nature of work and roles of public school adapted physical educators in the United States

Authors:  Martin Kudlácek, Ondrej Ješina, Dana Šterbová, and Claudine Sherrill

Abstract:  This article was a summary of a study using interviews to explain the role of an APE specialist.  The population of the study were:  nine people, seven females and two males, ranging from two to twenty-three years of experience, working thirty to 40 hours a week, serving four to twenty schools with forty-four to ninety students on their caseloads.  This study addressed commonalities among the participants in scheduling (most had two rotating schedules), appropriate caseload (most had 44-60 students), roles of public school APE teachers (most commented that you never knew who your were going to be working with and if they would appreciate or accept your advice), and their roles in the IEP (most considered experts and valued within their district).  Most APE teachers seemed overwhelmed with having to deal with all the IEP meetings, paper work, and traveling (average was 5.5 hours per week) with very little time actually teaching.  There was a call for each APE specialist to have their own space and equipment, as well as the concept of APE to be more valued by all.

3.  Roles and Responsibilities of Adapted Physical Education Teachers in Urban School Districts

Authors:  Patrick B. Akuffo and Samuel R. Hodge

Abstract:  This article talked about the role and responsibilities of an APE in consulting with general physical education teachers.  Most APE teachers in the study had high levels of self satisfaction, viewed their job as valued, and felt they were making a difference in student’s lives.  A smaller amount of women interviewed in this study reported that they felt disrespected, disregarded, and marginalized in their attempts of consulting with General P.E. teachers.  The study was conducted by a pre-interview, participants participated in ten behavioral teaching observations, and a post-interview re-evaluation.

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